Tungsten-Vanadium Oxide Sputtered Films for Electrochromic Devices
Mixed vanadium and tungsten oxide films with compositions ranging from 0 to 100% vanadium (metals basis) were prepared by reactive sputtering from metallic vanadium and tungsten targets in an atmosphere of argon and oxygen. The vanadium content varied smoothly with the fraction of total power applied to the vanadium target. Films containing vanadium were more color neutral than pure tungsten oxide films, tending to gray-brown at high V fraction. The electrochromic switching performance of these films was investigated by in situ monitoring of their visible transmittance during lithium insertion/extraction cycling in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1M LiClO4 in PC). the solar transmittance and reflectance was measured ex-situ. Films with vanadium content greater than about 15%, exhibited a marked decrease in switching range. The coloration efficiencies followed a similar trend.